Answer: The movement was powerful enough that not even the bloody and communal Partition of Bengal in 1947 could ebb its tide. However, there have been some communist-led peasant revolts in the Telangana region since 1946. The movements ranged from the Telangana Peasants movement and the PEPSU tenants’ movement which continued right before the independence and the Naxalite or Maoist movement which began in the 1960’s and ‘new’ Farmer’s movement in 1980’s. The most strident demand was for the writing off of all debts of the peasants that were manipulated by the feudal lords. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs),[1] who were ruling the villages known as samsthans. While the undivided Communist Party of India had provided leadership to both the Tebhaga Movement and Telangana Rebellion at its inception, the Communist Party of India—and its breakaway faction, the Communist Party of India (Marxist)—had become so engrossed with Parliamentary politics that they had to deviate heavily from Marxism-Leninism to the extent that none of the Parties remained “Communist” in their politics. In the villages controlled by guerrillas, vethi and forced labour disappeared. It is noteworthy that the government's proposal to set up a committee to look into the concerns of 35 farmers' organizations protesting against … They were against the Feudal System. It later became a fight against Nizam Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII. Ans : (i) Peasant movements have taken place from pre-colonial days. The initial modest aims were to do away with the illegal and excessive exploitation meted out by these feudal lords in the name of bonded labour. of . It was able to redistribute 10,00,000 acres of agricultural land to peasants. In this situation, the peasants led by local leaders Digambar Vishwas and Vishnu Vishwas started a movement. regionally organised, non-party organisation; The basic ideology of the movement was strongly anti-state and antiurban. One of the most politically effective peasant movements was seen in the erstwhile State of Hyderabad. Part Two: First Phase and Its Lessons", "Telangana People's Armed Struggle, 1946-51. [citation needed], The violent phase of the movement ended in 1951, when the last guerilla squads were subdued in the Telangana region. Champaran Satyagraha (1917) 2. [5] The Communist Party of India, although weak today, still retains strong support in the grassroots of Telangana. The landlords were either killed or driven out and the land was redistributed. The Telangana movement had many positive achievement to its credit. Nov 26, 2020 - Spectrum: Summary of Peasant Movements 1857-1947 UPSC Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. One, the peasantry has to ally itself with the working class to stand up against the oppressive and exploitative dictatorship of the ruling classes and its Hindutva fascist henchmen. NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 11 Paths to Modernization ... a Communist leader formed the Red Army. In the villages controlled by guerrillas, vethi and forced labour disappeared. Unfortunately, the conditions of the India peasantry haven’t changed much even after “independence”, for what we achieved in 1947 was more akin to that of a transfer of power from the hands of British imperialism to the hands of their Indian comprador classes, who became the ruling classes of the nominally and superficially “independent” Indian State. 1.Write short notes on: Ans. 4. Nizam. Telangana Movement . These sowed the seeds of the Maoist movement in India and which vegan the New Democratic Revolution in the country, which has continued for five decades through various twists and turns. The movement took place between 1858 and 1914 remained localised, disjointed and confined to particular grievances. Soon, however, the Movement took a political turn as the Rebellion sought to abolish the State of Hyderabad through the means of agrarian armed revolution. For UPSC 2020 preparation, follow BYJU'S. So that they could continue to engage poor and landless peasants to work on their landholdings, often for no compensation at all. However, seventeen years after the Movement had concluded, the peasants and sharecroppers in the area—many of whom were veterans of the Tebhaga Movement—did not dare any better. In Telangana region, the land ownership was in the hands of very few ruling class people. (i) Women’s Movement: Early 20th Century saw the growth of women’s organisations such as ‘Women’s India Association (WLA) (1917)’ All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) (1926), ‘National Council for Women in India (NEWI) (1925)’. download Peasant Revolts PDF for IAS Exam. in the article. While this might seem like a fair arrangement, it has to be borne in mind that it was the peasants and sharecroppers who had to provide almost all of the labour for sowing, reaping and harvesting the grain while the landlord class played no part, be it direct or indirect, in the production process. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Social Movements NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED. The Telangana Rebellion (IAST: tělaṃgāṇā věţţi cākiri udyamaṃ, "Telangana Bonded Labour Movement"; alternatively, tělaṃgāṇā raitāṃga sāyudha pōrāţaṃ, "Telangana Peasants Armed Struggle") was a peasant rebellion against the feudal lords of the Telangana region and, later, the princely state of Hyderabad He also started a guerilla war against Chiang-Kai-shek’s army. It was formed to strengthen the Peasant Movement. •Deccan Riots of 1857 against money lenders. Moplah Rebellion in Malabar 5. Although the Indian State and its ruling classes brought forth nominal legislation that had apparently gotten rid of the Zamindari system, the legislation had sufficient loopholes and workarounds that the landlord classes were able to use to bypass the new land laws to ensure that their landholdings were kept intact. Download NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science History Ruling the Countryside free pdf, NCERT Solutions updated as per latest NCERT book, NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History for Chapter 3 Ruling the CountrysideLet’s recall1. The rebellion was led by the Communist Party of India under the banner of Andhra Mahasabha. The well known movement are: • Bengal Revolt of 1859 – 62 against the indigo plantation system. Land reforms were recognised as important and various acts were passed to implement them. It finally came to an end when the Government of West Bengal passed the Bargardari Act 1950, which incorporated the demands of the Tebhaga Movement. The agrarian social structure of Hyderabad emerged to be very oppressive in 1920s and thereafter. SCERT Telangana Class 6 Social Textbooks. They occurred time and again within the context of the colonial and semi-feudal exploitation that the British imperialists and their Indian compradors carried out against the peasant masses of our country. While in a few places the peasantry was able to implement their legitimate demands peacefully, most of the movement was a violent one where the peasantry had to combat the violence of the landlords and the police forces that had come out in support of the landlords. (i) Women’s Movement: Early 20th Century saw the growth of women’s organisations such as ‘Women’s India Association (WLA) (1917)’ All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) (1926), ‘National Council for Women in India (NEWI) (1925)’. Peasant Revolt in Telangana 6. Part One: Historical Setting", "Telangana People's Armed Struggle, 1946-1951. However, dissidents within the Communist Party of India (Marxist) were becoming increasingly critical and disillusioned with the Party’s sole focus on Parliamentary politics. Her revolt inspired many to join the movement. The peasants organised by the Sabhas demanded freedom from economic exploitation for peasants, workers and all other exploited classes. This article will provide NCERT notes on the Deccan Riot of 1875. It had two kinds of land tenure systems, namely, raiyatwari and jagirdari. According to Sunderlal report which hasn't been officially released estimates that around 50,000 Muslims were massacred. (d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement. Match the following:ryot - villagemahal- peasantnij- cultivation on ryot’s landsryoti- cultivation on planter’s own landAnswer:ryot – Telangana Movement (Andhra Pradesh). [7], For the movement for Telangana's statehood, see, 1946–1951 Peasant rebellion in Telangana and Hyderabad, India, Nizam's resistance to join India/Pakistan, "Decline of a Patrimonial Regime: The Telangana Rebellion in India, 1946-51", "Telangana People's Armed Struggle, 1946-1951. (i) Peasant movements have taken place from pre-colonial days. However, the genesis of the Telangana movement lies deep into the history of the region itself. At the time of Independence peasant movements, namely the Tebhaga movement (1946-7) and the Telangana movement (1946-51) emerged; B. [4], The rebellion and the subsequent police action led to the capture of Hyderabad state from the Nizam's rule on 17 September 1948 and after a temporary military administration, it was merged into India. •Deccan Riots of 1857 against money lenders. The contents of this site are ©️ 2020 Telangana Publications pvt. Explain : (a) Why growth of Nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement. ADVERTISEMENTS: Peasant Movements: Telangana Peasant Struggle (1947-51)! With the rise in agrarian stress, the peasants of Maharashtra rose to revolt in 1875. It was supported by CPI. In June 1948, a leftist ideological… Known as the Historic Eight Documents, the essays were not only highly critical of the leadership of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), but it also provided a guide to action that would be used to organize and rouse the peasantry and the sharecroppers to revolutionary action. The Government of West Bengal sent police forces to quell the uprising. While the Tebhaga Movement and Telangana Rebellion had its genesis before the Indian State had gained “independence” and the “independent” Indian State had attempted to “destroy” the feudal system by “abolishing” the Zamindari system, many areas and regions of the country continued to play host to the oppressive feudal system and the upper caste landlord classes that significantly benefitted from it. Background: Historical Evolution of the Telangana Movement. The last Nizam Asaf Jah VII was made the Rajpramukh of the Hyderabad State from 26 January 1950 to 31 October 1956. Telangana Movement Revisited, K. Balagopal, The Imperial Crisis in the Deccan, J. F. Richards, The. The peasant movement in modern Indian history Indigo movement: - This movement started in 1859 in Govindpur village of Bengal. He also started a guerilla war against Chiang-Kai-shek’s army. (b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India. Among the well-known individuals at the forefront of the movement were Ravi Narayana Reddy, Maddikayala Omkar, Maddikayala Lakshmi Omkar, Puchalapalli Sundarayya, Pillaipalli Papireddy, Makhdoom Mohiuddin, Sulaiman Areeb, Hassan Nasir, Manthrala Adi Reddy, Bhimreddy Narasimha Reddy, Nandyala Srinivasa Reddy, Aruthula Kamaladevi and Bikumalla Sathyam. This was a significant blow for the Rebellion, and the Indian State was able to suppress the last of the armed peasant squads that the Rebellion had given birth to. It is the eleventh-largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km 2 (43,273 sq mi) and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. Peasants protested against the Nizams rule. Social Movements – CBSE Notes for Class 12 Sociology. At the time of Independence peasant movements, namely the Tebhaga movement (1946-7) and the Telangana movement (1946-51) emerged; B. The 1952 elections led to the victory of the Congress party in Hyderabad state. They wanted proper working system. movement for parliamentary representation in England. Many of these concerns were adequately addressed in a series of polemical documents that Charu Mazumdar, a veteran of the Tebhaga Movement, had penned. He defeated Chiang’s army four times. Read more about the Indigo Revolt, Santhal Uprising etc. The textbooks attempt to enhance this endeavour by giving higher priority and space to opportunities for contemplation and wondering, discussion in small groups and activities required for hands-on experience in the form of ‘Do This’, ‘Try This’ and ‘Projects’.. Teachers support is needed in the setting of situations in the classroom. Telangana (/ ˌ t ɛ l ə n ˈ ɡ ɑː n ə / (), Telugu: [ˈtelanɡaːna]) is a state in India situated on the south-central stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. The history of agrarian unrest can be traced back to the first quarter of 1920s. From the Santhal Rebellion of 1856 to the Indigo Rebellion of 1859-60, these peasant movements and rebellions were able to display—albeit, rudimentarily—the appalling conditions and misery that British imperialism and its support for the upper caste landlord classes had brought for the Indian peasantry, especially the poor and landless peasants. Telangana Movement (Andhra Pradesh). He became its chairperson in 1930. 31.4 Radical Peasant Movements in India 31.5 Tebhaga Movement 31.6 Telangana Movement 31.7 Naxalite Movement 31.8 Emerging Agrarian Social Structure and Peasants Movements 31.9 Change in Collective Mobilization 31.10 Conclusion 31.1 Introduction The central concern of this unit is to examine the various dimensions of the peasant movements. of Andhra Pradesh. Part Three: Pitted against the Indian Army", "Demand for installing Chakali Ilamma's statue", "Declassify report on the 1948 Hyderabad massacre", "Hyderabad 1948: India's hidden massacre", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Telangana_Rebellion&oldid=984974507, Revolutionary movement for Indian independence, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Naxalbari was one of the many places that had been hit by the storm of the Tebhaga Movement. Introduction • Where a group of people come together in order to bring about change in society in regard to certain social issues with the aim of changing people’s perspectives about that aspect. The princely state of Hyderabad under Asajahi Nizams; Combination of religious-linguistic domination. The Telangana Rebellion initially began as an anti-feudal movement, which protested against the brutal feudal oppression and exploitation that the peasantry faced at the hands of the landlords. For a long time, peasants and sharecroppers were forced to give up about 50% of the year’s harvest to the landlord, while they would have kept the remaining 50% for themselves. It was again separated from Andhra Pradesh to establish the State of Telangana in 2014. In 1842, the movement managed to collect 3.25 million signatures, a huge number for a tiny country. Naxalbari – in West Bengal it started off as peasant movement and slowly became New Farmers Movement; Started off by farmers in a few places like Tamil Nadu, Punjab. When the goons of a landlord brutally beat up a sharecropper who had won a judicial order to reap the crops in his own plot of land, that was the moment when the fury of the peasantry was unleashed. Telangana Movement. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was first Chief Minister of the Hyderabad state from 1952 to 1956. On 23rd May 1967, the police shot dead 11 people: eight women, two infants and a teenager. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Social Movements NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED. The Nizam had little control over these regions except the capital, Hyderabad. They wanted proper working system. It was supported by CPI. Another significant aspect of the Telangana Rebellion was the Andhra Thesis. Moreover, the Indian Communist Movement had significantly changed. In the process tens of thousands of people lost their lives, the majority that died during the army's movement were Muslims. Telangana Movement, Biggest peasant guerrilla war of modern Indian history affecting 3000 villages and 3 million populations. With Hyderabad's administration failing after 1945, the Nizam succumbed to the pressure of the Muslim elite and gave-in to the Razzakar Movement. The passage of the two bills—while contravening the protocols and procedures of a bourgeois institution like the Parliament—is also indicative of how the Hindutva fascists are serving the interests of imperialism, bureaucrat capitalism and feudalism envisioned by big landlords. 31.4 Radical Peasant Movements in India 31.5 Tebhaga Movement 31.6 Telangana Movement 31.7 Naxalite Movement 31.8 Emerging Agrarian Social Structure and Peasants Movements 31.9 Change in Collective Mobilization 31.10 Conclusion 31.1 Introduction The central concern of this unit is to examine the various dimensions of the peasant movements. The Telangana Armed Struggle, Barry Pavier, Anatomy of Rebellion, Claude Emerson Welch, SUNY Press, 1980, This page was last edited on 23 October 2020, at 06:10. (i) Peasant movements have taken place from pre-colonial days. NCERT Questions. station, the peasant movement spread to several states of India and came to be referred broadly as the Naxalite movement. Other estimates by responsible observers run as high as 200,000. Biggest peasant guerrilla war of modern Indian history. The first was a struggle of sharecroppers in Bengal in North Bihar for two thirds share of their produce instead of the customary half. However, the liberalization and globalization of the Indian State’s economy in 1991 only went on to worsen the condition of the Indian peasantry, to the extent that more than 3,30,000 peasants across the country have taken their lives as a result of not being able to lead dignified and prosperous lives in a system that leeches their labour to satisfy the interests of a few. Hyderabad was a classic example of maintaining feudal relations of production within its territory. To understand the all-India strike that the peasantry of our country had called to protest against the passage of the two anti-people and anti-farmer bills, it is imperative to look back at the three significant peasant movements and uprisings that have shaped the collective consciousness of the Indian people, and to understand the lessons that we could learn from them so that the Indian peasantry would be ideologically equipped to fight for their liberation from imperialism and semi-feudalism. Peasants protested against the Nizams rule. The movement took place between 1858 and 1914 remained localised, disjointed and confined to particular grievances. Regarding allotment of vacant Shops & Stalls in the NCERT Buildings. While a contemporary of the Tebhaga Movement, the Telangana Rebellion was the most significant peasant movement in the modern history of India. Peasant Movements in Independent India. They ruled over the communities in the village and managed the tax collections (revenues) and owned almost all the land in that area. 1.Write short notes on: Ans. It was formed to strengthen the Peasant Movement. Distinguish between Peasant and New Farmer’s Movements. Telangana, which corresponds to the boundaries of the modern-day Telangana State, was one of the three regions that constituted the erstwhile State of Hyderabad, one of the 600 Princely States that had accepted the British suzerainty in exchange for internal autonomy. Some peasants also stole grain from the stores of the landlords, and they also snatched firearms from them. Moreover, the Tebhaga Movement could be seen as a consequence of the Bengal Famine, which had killed three million Bengalis and dwindled the already low rations that the peasantry and sharecroppers had to survive upon. These community governments were integrated regionally into a central organization. Peasants began to reap and harvest crops en masse, defying the authority of the landlords. Third, only a revolution led by the alliance of the working class and peasantry can guarantee liberation from the oppressive and exploitative system that all of us have to bear with, even in a seemingly “independent” country like India. Even after the police action, the annexation of the Hyderabad State and the oppressive military administration by the Indian Army that killed thousands of people, the Telangana Rebellion continued unabated until 1951, when the leadership of the undivided Communist Party of India significantly deviated from Marxism-Leninism and opted to contest Parliamentary elections that were to be held next year. The peasant uprisings make an important topic for the IAS Exam from the context of Modern History. A Struggle of sharecroppers in Bengal in 1947 could ebb its tide of India. 6! 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