There isn’t a simple answer to this one: the answer varies depending on many things, so if you really want to find the optimum, you have to evaluate the resource requirements of … This is equivalent to multiply every incoming pulse by a filtering matrix. 'n�Xb�]��$R}��n��3��ͼ� �]7�n�,�=���>A�@O�l/ھv5���g����9�_��3 �}��֐�t���-]W4}e;���!0V��ʨ�P* �|��{��Ԕ�,3��-2�d���/Tf�A��D��7:F���hI&8WW��h�i��sn��c����T�gg������Z$L�$�=��k"�+5� l�8�D��$cF��E�}��[Z��%�R�K?l�&Lq���c�=0A�8!cV��P>�} 0000008256 00000 n However, unlike analog discriminators, they suffer from the digitized signal finite temporal resolution. The differential pairs generate a first signal and a second signal according to a first group of input signals and a second group of input signals. . ئCR���[J!�b`U'�m�� �5� 0000003668 00000 n 0000009832 00000 n We have devised a new isochronous accelerator for proton beam therapy, which can control beam energy from 70 MeV to 235 MeV without using degraders. We calculated orbit deviations by a one-milliradian kick while varying the kick position and found that the large turn separation region is appropriate for installing the massless septum; this finding supports the consistency between the optical design and the extraction scheme. We are using a novel type of setup, which allows for additional means of background suppression compared to commonly used PALS (positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy) measurement setups. ��-H+��қ�����a|�̕�[Q� lt]�U]5{˭���e;�g)�>�$�J��G��F����8&h�K�ۓ@�E�׎����J�pQ�:�,kq �Z��US�k�uU+�'��N4��ixh��hY P�j��fJ8#v'���n To evaluate the biological effect of boron compounds on normal tissues in boron neutron capture therapy, it is necessary to compare the radiation effects of neutron irradiation and gamma ray irradiation on small animals in nonclinical studies. � 5p o���z��z+��d���j 9�/I�'��k�*CW��J6w�%�yI�������������㹙CL�YU������J��"`�*@Tώ�u� ��0��>a�z-������+�ਈ*v��Nj����C#HO1\��`��ނ0��Q5�*��v[�6*cā@����G���A��tB��V/ȕ��©�ъX�����[��j7��>���Hpxp�g �5�&�J��E�֑�A�4��ȥ��a�.�Hf���l=߸����ܐa�:��~�$l5�ͨ��9��#1]\xOP��bL�SHYV�H�]���~{���޿=���ǂ��V*���@��J���n�qo|Vb�K��/��b�X���!�k���L���K���/�? ~�;���p��1�����ڧJ��y�oF�g���k[ e��@^���r�K��V*!�T�KK����#�+�,���űӐ��}۳��8k-A7#��g�� �B95 ��jB� I�vr�� It shows a Brain-PET system ‘1’. Dose measurement was performed using a Gafchromic film and an ionization chamber. 0000006303 00000 n An interpolation flap is a 2-stage tissue flap in which the base of the flap is not immediately adjacent to the recipient site. In [23], [25], [26], authors have described the multi threshold discriminators. In this context a novel method of timestamp calculation is suggested. The digital timestamp calculators are advantageous in terms of configurability and cost effective realization [23], [24], [36]. Then all the variances between the sum of the projection data on the left half side of the virtual detector and that on the right half side of the virtual detector are calculated. 9, 405, 024. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Finally, the accurate COR is determined by seeking out the minimum value of the variances. Block diagram of interpolator. A phase interpolator includes differential pairs, a switching circuit, an output stage, and a correction circuit. �۵bZ�y�7����Ʈe'�w�i�Iv��P �,t����� ��{�j�˶O�b9���?��p��d)��`�i�K��T0z={�S,����-r�\1IH��7DY����(�3X �!L��i߿p妍V;n�PZfK7�� 0 �� endstream endobj 36 0 obj 550 endobj 37 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 36 0 R >> stream It follows with an annihilation process during which the masses of the positron and the electron transform into two annihilation γ- photons, with a defined energy level of 511 keV [3], [4], [5]. 352-356, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 922, 2019, pp. 0000062638 00000 n Later on they are processed with a signal leading edge selector, a two stage hybrid interpolator and a multi threshold discriminator. H�t��r�0��y��L�رd�M�J����o��L/Pb�I�I߷���d�d:���s�=gw�Y�1 The precision of timestamp calculators can be augmented, up to a certain extent, by increasing the number of discriminating thresholds. 11. pp. Because multistage CIC interpolators have a single-stage CIC interpolator at its core, this trick will simplify the complexity of any CIC Interpolator [2]. Consequently, it reduces the precession of timestamp calculators. The nmos current sources supply 1/16 of total current, and use the same biases as the receive DLL. It happens because of the variations in the positions of interactions and the statistical fluctuations of the light photons and of the photo-detectors [4], [5], [23]. Each of these sensors is composed of at least one crystal scintillator and one or more photo-detectors. These methods [5], [19], [22], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30], typically involve the development of very high precession specific integrated circuits. The first results demonstrate that AMON data might be useful not only for the high-energy astrophysics purposes, but also for the studies of the airglow dynamics. 0000009196 00000 n © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. In digital signal processing, a cascaded integrator–comb (CIC) is an optimized class of finite impulse response (FIR) filter combined with an interpolator or decimator.. A CIC filter consists of one or more integrator and comb filter pairs. 4�M� endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 869 /CapHeight 722 /Descent -230 /Flags 98 /FontBBox [ -166 -250 994 958 ] /FontName /CJELDE+NewCenturySchlbk-Italic /ItalicAngle -15 /StemV 80 /XHeight 466 /StemH 45 /FontFile2 56 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 122 /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 278 0 0 0 0 0 556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 778 0 0 778 833 0 0 0 0 944 815 0 667 0 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 574 0 444 0 444 0 537 0 333 0 0 333 889 611 500 0 0 444 444 352 611 0 0 0 0 463 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /CJELDE+NewCenturySchlbk-Italic /FontDescriptor 32 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj 466 endobj 35 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 34 0 R >> stream These γ-rays are emitted simultaneously, substantially collinearly and in opposite directions. In this background, in [31], Joly et al. 2.2.3 OK, so how do I figure out the optimum number of stages, and the decimation factor at each stage? The second stage interpolator. It aptitudes for the realization of submillimetric resolution three dimensional tomographs. 0000009175 00000 n vU=q�zR�"g�� #�v"��D�E}. A feature of this accelerator is that the equilibrium orbits are cotangential, the same as for the classical microtron. The remaining of the paper is organized as follow. So the ES3.1 path should only hit the second interpolator and SM5 should only hit the first … (Use the largest ratio on the highest rate.) Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2019.01.004. These flaps are used when insufficient tissue or mobility in nearby skin prevents coverage of a surgical defect with primary closure or an adjacent flap. 0000001948 00000 n 4 (b) shows 2.5 GHz phase modulator. To perform this task, we have developed a one-pixel Airglow MONitor (AMON) instrument. 0000001240 00000 n Phase Interpolator (PI) Based CDR • Frequency synthesis loop produces multiple clock phases used by the phase interpolators • Phase interpolator mixes between input phases to produce a fine sampling phase • Ex: Quadrature 90°PI inputs with 5 bit resolution provides sampling phases spaced by 90°/(2 5-1)=2.9° • Digital phase tracking loop These pulses are digitized and selected via en energy thresholding. An event is the interaction between a γ-ray and the crystal scintillator. 2.1.3. The multiplexer selects two differential signals in 45° phase difference to provide

2 stage interpolator

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