PLASTIC PRODUCTION Global production was 245MT in 2006 Increases by almost 10% every year USA consumed 39MT in 2010 40% of plastic has a service life of less than 1 month Panda D. Achyut Thermolysis of waste plastics to liquid … PLA belongs to the family of aliphatic polyesters with the basic constitutional Download as PDF. From: Biopolymer Composites in Electronics, 2017. Polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the United States), tapioca roots, chips or starch (mostly in Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world). It was first discovered in 1932 by Wallace Carothers by heating lactic acid under vacuum while removing condensed water. Dr. Lim is author and coauthor of more than twenty journal articles, a holder of three patents, and has given twenty-one conference presentations. At the same time, the longer alkyl molecular chains were arranged in a certain manner between the layers, which can increased the interlayer spacing and facilitated the intercalation of polylactic acid monomers into the sheets to formed a MMT/PLA intercalation structure. PLA, polylactic acid; SEA, specific energy absorption. Its applications range from food packaging to biomedical usage (Spiridon et al. Polylactic acid (PLA) is at present one of the most promising biodegradable polymers (biopolymers) and has been the subject of abundant literature over the last decade. 6.10 Summary. Polylactic acid or polyactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive polyester made up of lactic acid building blocks. POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA) SYNTHESIS Direct polymerization of LA produces water Lactides may be prepared by heating lactic acid in the presence of an acid catalyst Drop in polarity makes separation of lactides easier Lactides undergo ROP in the presence of a catalyst (Tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate) I recommend this book to all who are interested in these biodegradable polymers." ... can be recycled after use either by remelting and processing the material a second time or by hydrolyzing to lactic acid, the basic chemical. During the early times, only low-density PLA was produced. Polylactic acid (PLA) is the most common bioplastic in use today. 0000001449 00000 n First, corn or other raw materials are fermented to produce lactic acid, which is then polymerized to make polylactic acid (PLA). Polylactic acid polymers are creating a lot of interest these days because they're biodegradable. 0000010806 00000 n 2018), which has become desirable because it is durable, rigid, and easily processed. Figure 5: Structure of polylactic acid [6]. 0000011204 00000 n 0000005060 00000 n 0000028408 00000 n Poly(lactic acid) or polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the United States and Canada), cassava roots, chips or starch (mostly in Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world). Buy eBook. To that end, an overall theme of the book is the biodegradability, recycling, and sustainability benefits of PLA. *9��b�%ck��V��^�ʈyoP揟ݗ2�V/Pc��h��1��-������;x�$���[�~Xcӽ�Cި��� ˕�d7��cK""9 X�Ԣ�_@8}�`#�{�qH� V��kh�����1n=cGQY_g���^,�r�,ș�K��ܲSb�U9|v0��y 55 0 obj<>stream It was first discovered in 1932 by Wallace Carothers by heating lactic acid under vacuum while removing condensed water. The chapters, from a base of international expert contributors, describe specific processing methods, spectroscopy techniques for PLA analysis, and and applications in medical items, packaging, and environmental use. 6.5 Amorphous structure and thermal properties. He has authored or coauthored more than a hundred academic papers, has edited three books, and holds twelve patents. Evolution of the bioplastics industry has changed directions dramatically since the early 1990s. Polyglycolic acid is a multifilament suture material derived from a homopolymer of glycolic acid (hydroxyacetic acid), and is available uncoated (Dexon S, U.S. Surgical, Norwalk, CT) or coated (Dexon II, U.S. Surgical, Norwalk, CT) with polycaprolate, a copolymer of glycolide and ε-caprolactone. 0000003893 00000 n Nanocellulose reinforced PLA biocomposites have received increasing attention in academic and industrial communities. 0000004262 00000 n Search results for Polylactic acid at Sigma-Aldrich. Polylactic acid (PLA) is a plastic derived from entirely “renewable resources such as sugar, corn, potatoes,” and other plants (Vasile et al. This lactic acid must be purified to make a high quality product. Putatively, PLLA microparticles initiate neocollagenesis as a … "In summary, I found this book to be a valuable, one-source reference to the chemistry of polylactides. You are currently using the site but have requested a page in the site. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. trailer It should serve as an excellent compilation for researchers and prospective researchers in this growing field of polymer chemistry. Finally, almost transparent amorphous artificial nacre (AAN) with amorphous … 6.3 Syndiotactic polymerization and syndiotacticity. 0000002533 00000 n 6.7 Semi-crystalline structure. Figure 5: Structure of polylactic acid [6]. *Please select more than one item to compare Structure of poly (lactic- co -glycolic acid). Susan Selke is Professor and Associate Director in the School of Packaging at Michigan State University. r>0Hx�4� ` �eJ� startxref In: Gary E. Wnek, Gary L. Bowlin: Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering. 0000009507 00000 n It is one of the few polymers in which the stereochemical structure can eas-ily be modifi ed by polymerizing a controlled mixture ofl and d isomers ( Fig. PLGA, PLG, or poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) is a copolymer which is used in a host of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved therapeutic devices, owing to … x = number of units of lactic acid; y = number of units of glycolic acid. 2018). 0000000016 00000 n PLA) are known as “bioplastics.” 6.6 Orientation structure of PLA. 6.6 Orientation structure of PLA. It should serve as an excellent compilation for researchers and prospective researchers in this growing field of polymer chemistry. polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxy ester ether (PHEE) and cornstarch as a promising blend. Rafael A. Auras (Editor), Compostable polymer used in medical implants, 3D printing,. The past decade has seen a remarkable surge of research interest in developing PLA based blends and composites for durable applications in automotive, electronics and semistructural parts. P-Lac-P-LI. �7On�.��i�� ���+�3Rֳ?���zfp���^��:����}G���W&;�Ck���m �. 0000028464 00000 n 2-Hydroxypropanoic acid--5-(1,2-dithiolan-3-yl)pentanoic acid (1/1) 1,2-Dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid, (R)-, polymer with 2-hydroxypropanoic acid Polylactic acid (PLA) is a bioresorbable polymer that is used in a number of clinical situations. 0000001573 00000 n polylactic acid (PLA) was considered the most suitable candid ate as a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer. 6.1 Introduction. Polylactic Acid (PLA) is different than mo st thermoplastic polymers in that it is derived from renewable resources like corn starch or sugar cane. low molecular weight polymers which then can be converted to higher molecular weight polymers by addition of chain coupling agents Compare Products: Select up to 4 products. 426, 25.3.3 Induction of PLLA Degrading Enzymes with Natural Substrates 426, 25.3.6 Enzymatic Degradation in Organic Solvents 427, 25.3.7 Evolution of PLA Degrading Enzymes 428, 26 Cradle to Gate Environmental Footprint and Life Cycle Assessment of Poly(lactic acid) 431Amy E. Landis, 26.1 Introduction to LCA and Environmental Footprints 431, 26.2 Life Cycle Considerations for PLA 432, 26.3 Review of Biopolymer LCA Studies 434, 26.4 Improving PLA’s Environmental Footprint 438, 27 Medical Applications 445Shuko Suzuki and Yoshito Ikada, 27.2 Minimal Requirements for Medical Devices 445, 27.3 Preclinical and Clinical Applications of PLA Devices 447, 27.3.4 Microspheres, Microcapsules, and Thin Coatings 453, 28 Packaging and Other Commercial Applications 457Shoji Obuchi and Shinji Ogawa, 28.2 Applications in Packaging and Containers 457, 28.3.1 Agricultural and Engineering Materials 462, 29 Textile Applications 469Masatsugu Mochizuki, 29.2 Manufacturing, Properties, and Structure of PLA Fibers 469, 29.2.2 PLA Fibers and Textile Properties 469, 29.2.3 Effects of Structure on Properties 470, 29.3 Key Performance Features of PLA Fibers 471, 29.3.1 Biodegradability and the Biodegradation Mechanism 471, 29.3.3 Antibacterial/Antifungal Properties 472, 29.4.6 Clothing and Personal Belongings 475, 30 Environmental Applications 477Akira Hiraishi, 30.2 Application to Water and Wastewater Treatment 477, 30.2.2 Application to Nitrogen Removal 479, 30.3.2 Bioremediation of Organohalogen Pollution 482, 30.4 Concluding Remarks and Prospects 484, Wiley Series on Polymer Engineering and Technology. A critical lack of personal protective equipment has occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. The PLA bag, although only 20 micrometers thick, is actually made of multiple layers that include PLA, aluminum and a sealant held together by an adhesive. He has authored or coauthored more than sixty publications. Loong-Tak Lim (Editor), Copyright © 2000-document.write(new Date().getFullYear()) by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., or related companies. As the need for environmentally-friendly packaging materials increases, consumers and companies are in search for new materials that are largely produced from renewable resources, and are recyclable. 0000004432 00000 n The latest generation is moving toward durable bioplastics having high biobased content. 0000001896 00000 n PLA and PLGA are “green” polymers as they are based on monomers derived from renewable sources. 0000000976 00000 n Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: DL-Lactic Acid, Lactic acid, 50-21-5, 598-82-3, 26100-51-6. 89 Citations; 2 Mentions; 21k Downloads; Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 279) Log in to check access. Polylactic acid (PLA, polylactide) bioplastic, chemical structure. Synthesis, Structure and Properties of Poly(lactic acid) Editors (view affiliations) Maria Laura Di Lorenzo; René Androsch; Book. 0000003112 00000 n Polylactic acid (PLA) is at present one of the most promising biodegradable polymers (biopolymers) and has been the subject of abundant literature over the last decade. By using lactide as a raw material and through the process of ring-opening polymerization, a … 6.8 Frustrated structure. 0000028155 00000 n Template:Chembox. Thermal analysis was carried out with a differential scanning calorimeter. 0000023230 00000 n Polylactic acid polymers are creating a lot of interest these days because they're biodegradable. This makes it relatively cost efficient to produce. Polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the United States), tapioca roots, chips or starch (mostly in Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world). Polylactic acid (PLA) is widely used in biological areas due to its excellent compatibility, bioabsorbability, and degradation behavior in human bodies. Other articles where Polylactic acid is discussed: major industrial polymers: Degradable polyesters: These include polyglycolic acid (PGA), polylactic acid (PLA), poly-2-hydroxy butyrate (PHB), and polycaprolactone (PCL), as well as their copolymers: PLGA is synthesized by means of ring-opening co-polymerization of two different monomers, the cyclic dimers (1,4-dioxane-2,5-diones) of glycolic acid and lactic acid. PHEE polymer is derived from diglycidyl ether bisphenol A and adipic acid. Would you like to change to the site? Polylactic acid has a glass transition temperature that is just above room temperature so that just handling the bag is enough to cause the disturbing crinkling as the polymer oscillates between flexibility and brittleness. Hideto Tsuji is a Professor in the Department of Ecological Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering at Toyohashi University of Technology. Pure polylactic acid has difficulty in meeting all the requirements that specific field may demand. 0000007841 00000 n 0 6.2 Chain structure and configuration. This is a dummy description. The L-isomer of polylactic acid is a biodegradable, biocompatible, biologically inert, synthetic polymer. 6.4 Conformation. In 2010, PLA was the second most important bioplastic of the world in regard to consumption volume. Molecular structure of a particle, of polylactic acid (pla), a bioplastic that is a sustainable alternative for a number of petroleum-based plastics. Although the straight column lattice structure has advantages in uniaxial compression strength and energy absorption, it also has some defects such as high anisotropy and shear defects. Polylactic acid Mw ~60,000; CAS Number: 26100-51-6; Synonym: Poly(2-hydroxypropionic acid); find Sigma-Aldrich-38534 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich. It can be produced from already existing manufacturing equipment (those designed and originally used for petrochemical industry plastics). This is known as "lost PLA casting", a type of investment casting. 6.2 Chain structure and configuration. Chemical Structure of Poly(lactic acid). 6.8 Frustrated structure. Chapter 7. However, the simultaneous introduction of these benefits into three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds poses a daunting challenge. PLA is used as a feedstock material in desktop fused filament fabrication 3D printers (e.g. DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b04264. Polylactide, umgangssprachlich auch Polymilchsäuren (kurz PLA, vom englischen Wort Polylactic acid (PLA): Research, development and industrialization. In 2010, PLA was the second most important bioplastic of the world in regard to consumption volume. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: DL-Lactic Acid, Lactic acid, 50-21-5, 598-82-3, 26100-51-6. 0000007741 00000 n 434 Polylactic Acid: Synthesis, Properties and Applications, L. Avérous PLA belongs to the family of aliphatic polyesters commonly made from -hydroxy acids, which also includes, for example, polyglycolic acid (PGA). 0000009115 00000 n Polylactic Acid is biodegradable and has characteristics similar to polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), or polystyrene (PS). 0000006779 00000 n Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the most promising biopolymers as it can be produced from nontoxic renewable feedstock. %%EOF Therefore, PLA based nanocomposites are extensively investigated over the past few decades. On the ... (see picture below for the structure of lactic acid). endstream endobj 54 0 obj<> endobj 56 0 obj<>/Font<>>>/DA(/Helv 0 Tf 0 g )>> endobj 57 0 obj<> endobj 58 0 obj<> endobj 59 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 60 0 obj<> endobj 61 0 obj<> endobj 62 0 obj<> endobj 63 0 obj<> endobj 64 0 obj<> endobj 65 0 obj<> endobj 66 0 obj<> endobj 67 0 obj<>stream PLA-printed solids can be encased in plaster-like moulding materials, then burned out in a furnace, so that the resulting void can be filled with molten metal. The L-isomer of polylactic acid is a biodegradable, biocompatible, biologically inert, synthetic polymer. RepRap). Poly(lactic acid) or polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the United States and Canada), cassava roots, chips or starch (mostly in Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world). 53 0 obj<> endobj 0000008681 00000 n 0000005956 00000 n At the same time, the longer alkyl molecular chains were arranged in a certain manner between the layers, which can increased the interlayer spacing and facilitated the intercalation of polylactic acid monomers into the sheets to formed a MMT/PLA intercalation structure. PLA is one of the most common bioplastics used today, however, the process for this material to be degraded is very specific and has to occur in the appropriate facilities, that is, if it ends up in a landfill, it will remain there for thousands of years like a normal plastic [10]. Poly(lactic acid) or polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the United States and Canada), cassava roots, chips or starch (mostly in Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world). This is a dummy description. Bioplastics are expected to make major contributions to environmental protection, because they reduce CO2 and because they are biodegradable. Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the most promising biodegradable and recyclable thermoplastic biopolymer derived from renewable feedstock. 528 Pages. Learn more about bioplastics with this article. Similar Illustrations See All. The series Advances in Polymer Science presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in polymer and biopolymer science. POLYLACTIC ACID Christine Schifone December 8, 2011 . The results showed that with the increasing melt-draw ratios (MDRs), an oriented structure appeared at first, and then, a chi stru PHEE was used for its good adhesion properties. Illustration about fiber, polymer, milk - 191112051 0000001340 00000 n A polylactic acid composition according to claim 1, which has a phase separation structure having a phase comprising the polylactic acid-series resin (A) and … Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. 0000007587 00000 n H�̔�n�0E���YJE̐Ի��E�-`4�9Y�m1��%����E��)P��.lZ"9s��S��(��G�$�0 Polylactic acid, Poly(L-lactide), Poly(D,L-lactide) STRUCTURE BASED NAME: Poly(2-hydroxypropionic acid) ACRONYMS: PLA: CAS # 33135-50-1: CurlySMILES: C{-}(C)C(=O)O{n+} 0000010015 00000 n It is, at least in theory. 6.3 Syndiotactic polymerization and syndiotacticity. "In summary, I found this book to be a valuable, one-source reference to the chemistry of polylactides. Plastics that are derived from biomass (e.g. DTXSID50927697 (R)-1,2-Dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid polymer with 2-hydroxypropanoic acid. In the present study, cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) was liberated by combined enzymatic pretreatment and high-pressure … ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2019, 7 (1) , 688-696. <]>> Solid free from fabrication methods, such as 3D printing, can produce complex-shaped articles directly from a CAD model. Although several biobased engineering plastics are already available in the market, the idea here is to take advantage of the cost competiveness and unique properties of polylactic acid (PLA). Complex shapes of PLA are commonly machined for bone fixation and reconstruction. ABSTRACT. Polylactic acid or polyactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive polyester made up of lactic acid building blocks. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. The name poly(lactic acid) does not comply with IUPAC standard nomenclature, and is potentially ambiguous or confusing, because PLA is not a polyacid (polyelectrolyt… PLA can be processed with a large number of techniques and is commercially available (large-scale production) in a wide range of grades. 6.4 Conformation. This study reports on the mechanical properties of 3D-printed PLLA parts. Hideto Tsuji (Editor), ISBN: 978-0-470-29366-9 0000028801 00000 n Biodegradable stents would provide initial scaffolding of the stenosed segment and disappear subsequently. Rafael Auras is an Assistant Professor in the School of Packaging at Michigan State University. During … 0000002030 00000 n 53 34 xref Chemical Structure of Poly(lactic acid). Fabrication of Polylactic Acid-Modified Carbon Black Composites into Improvement of Levelness and Mechanical Properties of Spun-Dyeing Polylactic Acid Composites Membrane. 6.1 Introduction. This is a dummy description. �a�@��.o�8lm�@CT���串"�!�YJ�2{}�Gw�u]~a���D�Ĩp)+�3ZC�K�1�C3`�-~�QI������C������IF�酜�����U�i,u�1�yw��e�;e�����i��۝�� �6���z-Ŭ��B���"?~��?��IQW��g~�����J��tA ���[�Wa˛��2���_f�u���+�hȫ�5ɽz��4�F��O����Ck~x����4DZ���5�`�I���T-}�`]e�Zh�!SJI/� 4��巫�4b�ag�U�Ө`� :�d��i�V�[X�U � ��F�b�+�a�A��p��A��dQ�A4�#,/k5VAY',��}6�_? Common catalysts used in the preparation of this polymer include Bioplastic, moldable plastic material made up of chemical compounds that are derived from or synthesized by microbes such as bacteria or by genetically modified plants. x�b```g``�e`e`Љ`�c@ >����� ���w $y8fL\������?3mM5&����q]��@%#�+�c�����K�|�;M���,���QHIIŭ��6vqq � 6 ED�Wiy 6��d�e�������s���F�I��۹��)XK�Hr�'k���BgC�����Sx�[�>(�fpey����:C"I��#�߇�;s�>1^�q@�D����'ȉ�>pQF�8 ��N@����� This research includes the fundamental knowledge about the Polylactic Acid. Polylactic Acid (PLA) is a bioplastic generally derived from animal-feed corn that can be used for a myriad of different purposes including cold drink cups, deli and takeout containers, and fresh produce packaging. 0000027168 00000 n This thermoplastic material has an amorphous structure with glass transition at 45C (Mang and White 1992, 1995, 1997). This book describes the synthesis, properties, and processing methods of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), an important family of degradable plastics. Request permission to reuse content from this site, Part I Chemistry and Production of Lactic Acid, Lactide, and Poly(Lactic Acid) 1, 1 Production and Purification of Lactic Acid and Lactide 3Wim Groot, Jan van Krieken, Olav Sliekersl, and Sicco de Vos, 1.2.2 Physical Properties of Lactic Acid 4, 1.2.4 Production of Lactic Acid by Fermentation 5, 1.2.5 Downstream Processing/Purification of Lactic Acid 8, 1.2.6 Quality/Specifications of Lactic Acid 10, 1.3.4 Quality and Specifications of Polymer-Grade Lactide 14, 1.3.5 Concluding Remarks on Polymer-Grade Lactide 16, 2 Chemistry and Thermodynamic Properties of Lactic Acid and Lactide and Solvent Miscibility 19Zhengyu Jin, Yaoqi Tian, and Jinpeng Wang, 2.1.1 Physical and Chemistry Properties of Lactic Acid 19, 2.1.2 Physical and Chemical Properties of Lactide 19, 2.2.1 Vapor Pressures of Lactic Acids at Different Temperatures 19, 2.2.2 Temperature Dependence of Densities of Lactic Acid 20, 2.2.3 Temperature Dependence of Viscosity of Lactic Acid 20, 2.3 Miscibility Properties of Lactic Acid and Lactide 21, 2.3.1 Miscibility of Lactic Acid with Different Solvents 21, 2.3.2 Miscibility of Lactic Acid with Modifiers in Diluents 21, 2.3.3 Physical and Chemical Equilibrium of Lactic Acid 22, 2.3.4 Miscibility of Lactide with Solvents 25, 3 Industrial Production of High Molecular Weight Poly(Lactic Acid) 27Anders Södergård and Mikael Stolt, 3.2 Lactic Acid Based Polymers by Polycondensation 28, 3.3 Lactic Acid Based Polymers by Chain Extension 32, 3.3.1 Chain Extension with Diisocyanates 32, 3.3.2 Chain Extension with Bis-2-oxazoline 33, 3.3.4 Chain Extension with Bis-epoxies 34, 3.4 Lactic Acid Based Polymers by Ring-Opening Polymerization 34, 4 Design and Synthesis of Different Types of Poly(Lactic Acid) 43Ann-Christine Albertsson, Indra Kumari Varma, Bimlesh Lochab, Anna Finne-Wistrand, and Kamlesh Kumar, 4.2.1 Synthesis of Copolymers of Lactic Acid: Glycolic Acid 44, 4.2.2 Synthesis of Copolymers of Lactic Acid: Poly(ethylene glycol) 44, 4.2.3 Synthesis of Copolymers of Lactic Acid: d-Valerolactone and Lactic Acid: b-Butyrolactone 45, 4.2.4 Synthesis of Copolymers of Lactic Acid: e-Caprolactone 46, 4.2.5 Synthesis of Copolymers of Lactic Acid: 1,5-Dioxepan-2-one 46, 4.2.6 Synthesis of Copolymers of Lactic Acid: Trimethylene Carbonate 46, 4.2.7 Synthesis of Copolymers of Lactic Acid: Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) 47, 4.2.8 Synthesis of LA: Alkylthiophene (P3AT) Copolymers 47, 4.3.1 Degradation of Homo- and Copolymers 54, 4.3.2 Drug Delivery from PLLA Copolymers 54, 5 Structure and Properties of Stereocomplex-Type Poly(lactic acid) 59Masayuki Hirata and Yoshiharu Kimura, 5.2 Formation of Stereocomplex Crystals 59, 5.4.1 Unit Cell Parameters and Molecular Conformation of sc-PLA 60, 5.4.2 Density and Heat of Fusion of Sccrystals 60, 5.5.1 ROP Routes to Diblock and Multiblock sb-PLA 61, Part II Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid) 67, 6 Chemical Structure of Poly(lactic acid) 69Xue Jiang, Yan Luo, Xiuzhi Tian, Dan Huang, Narendra Reddy, and Yiqi Yang, 6.2.3 Interlocked Structure, Polymer Blend, and Resistance to Hydrolysis 71, 6.3 Syndiotactic Polymerization and Syndiotacticity 72, 6.5 Amorphous Structure and Thermal Properties 74, 6.5.1 Amorphous and Three-Phase Models 74, 6.6.1 Mechanical Orientation by Stretching or Compression 77, 6.6.2 Thermal Orientation (Phase Transition) 77, 6.7.2 Three Forms (a, b and c) of the Crystal Structure 78, 7 Chemical Compatibility of Poly(lactic acid): A Practical Framework Using Hansen Solubility Parameters 83Steven Abbott, 8 Optical Properties 97Carla M. B. Gonçalves, João A. P. Coutinho, and Isabel M. Marrucho, 8.2 Absorption and Transmission of UV-Vis Radiation 97, 9 Crystallization and Thermal Properties 113Luca Fambri and Claudio Migliaresi, 9.2 Crystallinity and Crystallization 114, 10 Rheology of Poly(lactic acid) 125John R. Dorgan, 10.2 Fundamental Chain Properties from Dilute Solution Viscometry 126, 10.3 Processing of PLA: General Considerations 130, 10.5 Processing of PLA: Rheological Properties 132, Appendix 10.A Description of the Software 138, 11 Mechanical Properties 141Gabriele Perego and Gian Domenico Cella, 11.2 General Mechanical Properties and Molecular Weight Effect 141, 11.2.1 Tensile and Flexural Properties 141, 12 Permeation, Sorption, and Diffusion in Poly(lactic acid) 155Eva Almenar and Rafael Auras, 12.2 Factors Affecting Permeability, Sorption, and Diffusion in PLA 157, 12.3 Permeability, Sorption, and Diffusion of Pure PLA 163, 12.5.2 PLA/Poly(€-caprolactone) Blends 170, 12.5.4 PLA/Poly((R)-3-hydroxybutyrate) Blends 171, 13.3 Migration and Toxicological Data of Lactic Acid, Lactide, Dimers and Oligomers 182, 13.5 Other Potential Migrants from PLA 187, Part III Processing and Conversion of Poly(Lactic Acid) 189, 14 Processing of Poly(lactic acid) 191Loong-Tak Lim, Kevin Cink, and Tim Vanyo, 14.2 Properties of PLA Relevant to Processing 191, 14.3 Modification of PLA Properties by Process Aids and Other Additives 193, 14.12 Conclusion: Prospects of PLA Polymers 211, 15 Poly(lactic acid)/Starch Blends 217Long Yu, Eustathios Petinakis, Katherine Dean, and Hongshen Liu, 15.2 Blending Hydrophobic PLA with Hydrophilic Starch 218, 15.3 Compatibilizers Used for Starch/PLA Blends 219, 15.4 Enhancing Function of Compatibilizer by Controlling Compatibilizer Distribution 220, 16 Poly(lactic acid) Blends 227Sukeewan Detyothin, Ajay Kathuria, Waree Jaruwattanayon, Susan E. M. Selke, and Rafael Auras, 16.2 PLA/Nonbiodegradable Polymer Blends 227, 16.2.2 Vinyl and Vinylidene Polymers and Copolymers 229, 16.3 PLA/Biodegradable Polymer Blends 240, 16.3.2 Vinyl and Vinylidene Polymers and Copolymers 242, 16.3.3 Aliphatic Polyesters and Copolyesters 244, 16.3.4 Aliphatic-Aromatic Copolyester 255, 16.3.8 Annually Renewable Biodegradable Materials 261, 17.4.1 Dissolution of Blowing Agent in Polymer 275, 17.4.3 Bubble Growth and Stabilization 276, 17.5 Plastic Foams Expanded with Physical Foaming Agents 276, 17.5.2 Solid State Batch Microcellular Foaming Process 277, 17.5.3 Microcellular Foaming in a Continuous Process 282, 17.6 PLA Foamed with Chemical Foaming Agents 286, 17.6.2 Effect of Processing Conditions 287, 17.7 Mechanical Properties of PLA Foams 288, 17.7.1 Batch Microcellular Foamed PLA 288, 17.7.2 Microcellular Extrusion of PLA 288, 17.7.3 Microcellular Injection Molding of PLA 288, 18 Composites 293Subrata Bandhu Ghosh, Sanchita Bandyopadhyay-Ghosh, and Mohini Sain, 18.3.4 Inorganic Filler Reinforcement 298, 18.9 Future Developments and Concluding Remarks 307, 19.2 PLA Nanocomposites Based on Clay 312, 19.2.1 Structure and Properties of Clay 312, 19.2.2 Preparation and Characterization of PLA/Clay Nanocomposites 312, 19.3 PLA Nanocomposites Based on Carbon Nanotubes 314, 19.4 PLA Nanocomposites Based on Various Other Nanoparticles 315, 19.5 Properties of PLA-Based Nanocomposites 316, 19.9 Possible Applications and Future Prospects 320, 20 Spinning of Poly(lactic acid) Fibers 323Ashwini K. Agrawal, 20.1 Defining Fiber and Fiber Spinning 323, 20.3.1 Instabilities During Flow Through Spinneret 326, 20.3.2 Instabilities in the Spinning Zone: Draw Resonance 327, 20.4 Structure Development During Melt Spinning 328, 20.6 Structure Development During Drawing 331, 20.7.3 Factors Affecting Solution Spinning 335, 20.7.5 Solution Spinning of Stereocomplex Fiber 337, Part IV Degradation and Environmental Issues 343, 21 Hydrolytic Degradation 345Hideto Tsuji, 21.2.1 Molecular Degradation Mechanism 346, 21.2.2 Material Degradation Mechanism 355, 21.2.3 Degradation of Crystalline Residues 360, 21.3 Parameters for Hydrolytic Degradation 362, 21.3.2 Effects of Material Parameters 365, 21.4 Structural and Property Changes During Hydrolytic Degradation 371, 21.5 Applications of Hydrolytic Degradation 373, 21.5.2 Recycling of PLA to Its Monomer 375, 22 Enzymatic Degradation 383Tadahisa Iwata, Hideki Abe, and Yoshihiro Kikkawa, 22.1.1 Definition of Biodegradable Plastics 383, 22.2 Enzymatic Degradation of PLA Films 384, 22.2.1 Structure and Substrate Specificity of Proteinase K 385, 22.2.2 Enzymatic Degradability of PLLA Films 385, 22.2.3 Enzymatic Degradability of PLA Stereoisomers and Their Blends 386, 22.2.4 Effects of Surface Properties on Enzymatic Degradability of PLLA Films 388, 22.3 Enzymatic Degradation of Thin Films 390, 22.3.1 Thin Films and Analytical Techniques 390, 22.3.2 Crystalline Morphologies of Thin Films 391, 22.3.3 Enzymatic Adsorption and Degradation Rate of Thin Films 391, 22.3.4 Enzymatic Degradation of LB Film 394, 22.3.5 Application of Selective Enzymatic Degradation 394, 22.4 Enzymatic Degradation of Lamellar Crystals 395, 22.4.1 Enzymatic Degradation of PLLA Single Crystals 395, 22.4.2 Thermal Treatment and Enzymatic Degradation of PLLA Single Crystals 396, 22.4.3 Single Crystals of PLA Stereocomplex 397, 23.2 Kinetic Analysis of Thermal Degradation 401, 23.3 Thermal Degradation Behavior of PLA Based on Molecular Weight Change 403, 23.4 Thermal Degradation Behavior of PLA Based on Weight Loss 403, 23.4.1 Diverse Mechanisms of PLA Pyrolysis 403, 23.4.2 Effects of Polymerization Catalyst Residues 404, 23.4.3 Effects of Chain-End Structures 406, 23.4.5 Thermal Degradation Behavior of PLA Stereocomplex: sc-PLA 408, 23.4.7 Selective Depolymerization of PLA in Blends 409, 24 Photodegradation and Radiation Degradation 413Wataru Sakai and Naoto Tsutsumi, 24.2.3 Photochemical Reaction of Carbonyl Groups 415, 24.3 Mechanism of Radiation Degradation 415, 24.3.2 Basic Mechanism of Radiation Degradation 415, 24.5 Photosensitized Degradation of PLA 418, 24.7 Modification of PLA by Irradiation 420, 25 Biodegradation 423Buenaventurada P. Calabia, Yutaka Tokiwa, Charles U. Ugwu, and Seiichi Aiba, 25.3 Poly(L-Lactide) Degrading Enzymes 426, 25.3.2 PLLA-Degrading Enzyme of Amycolatopsis sp.
2020 polylactic acid structure