In Canada the Montreal Group of modernist poets, including A.M. Klein, A.J.M. wrote Trilogy out of her experiences in London during World War II and Helen in Egypt, a reworking of the Helen of Troy story from the perspective of the female protagonist, as a kind of feminist response to the masculine mind-set behind Pound's epic. British 20th Century Poets. The poem goes from being a static object to being an action. From this point on, modernism in English tended towards a poetry of the fragment that rejected the idea that the poet could present a comfortingly coherent view of life. while a third member of the group, Robert Creeley did much to help revive interest in Zukofsky and other Objectivists. In 1913, Pound was contacted by the widow of the recently deceased Orientalist Ernest Fenollosa, who while in Japan had collected word-by-word translations and notes for 150 classical Chinese poems that fit in closely with this program. Many of these writers found a major platform for their work in Cid Corman's Origin magazine and press. 1. the Wasteland – T S Eliot Wallace Stevens' work falls somewhat outside this mainstream of modernism. His first volume, Prufrock and Other Observations (1917), established him as In many respects, their criticism echoes what William Wordsworth wrote in Preface to Lyrical Ballads to instigate the Romantic movement in British poetry over a century earlier, criticising the gauche and pompous school which then pervaded, and seeking to bring poetry to the layman. The Macmillan Company, New York; and Macmillan & Co., London, 1914, 7-8. After the war, he set up a literary magazine, Scottish Chapbook, with 'Not traditions - Precedents!' Modernism is a comprehensive movement which began in the closing years of the 19th century and has had a wide influence internationally during much of the 20th century. For many Dadaists, including German writer Hugo Ball and New York poet and performer Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, sound poems were protestations against the sounds of war. Brian Coffey's Advent is the key long poem by an Irish modernist. 05 August 1929. William Carlos Williams' Paterson applied the techniques developed by Pound to a specific location and in a specific, American, dialect. The most striking thing in twentieth-century English literature is the revolution in poetic taste and practice. This magazine, which ran from 1915 to 1919, was edited by Alfred Kreymborg. Among the Beats, Gary Snyder and Allen Ginsberg studied Pound closely and were heavily influenced by his interest in Chinese and Japanese poetry and the ecological concerns evident in the later Cantos. The poem and the mind become synonymous: a collapse between the poem, the act, and the mind. as its motto. Some poets loved using prescribed structures and forms, while others rejected these ideas completely and tried to do their own thing. Between 1914 and 1917, four anthologies of Imagist poetry were published. William Butler Yeats (13 June 1865 – 28 January 1939) was an Irish poet, dramatist, and one of the foremost figures of 20th century literature. and Richard Aldington, to the Eiffel Tower group. Like the Objectivists, these poets were relatively neglected by their native literary cultures and had to wait for a revival of interest in British and Irish modernism in the 1960s before their contributions to the development of this alternative tradition were properly assessed. [4] The Baroness’s poem “Klink-Hratzvenga (Death-wail)”, written in response to her husband’s suicide after the war’s end, was “a mourning song in nonsense sounds that transcended national boundaries”. However, the 1950s saw the emergence, particularly in the United States, of a new generation of poets who looked to the modernists for inspiration. The Objectivists, especially the strict formal experimentation of Zukofsky's later works, were also formative for the L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poets. These writers were aware of Pound and Eliot, but they were also Francophone and took an interest in contemporary French poetry, especially the surrealists. His principal contribution to twentieth century verse was a return to highly intellectual, allusive poetry. The war also tended to undermine the optimism of the Imagists. British 20th Century Poets. Williams, a doctor who worked in general practice in a working-class area of Rutherford, New Jersey, explained this approach by saying that he made his poems from 'the speech of Polish mothers'. Hardy is regarded as a great English poet of this century. Point of View 6. Poets experimented with plain-spoken language, gritty realism, and imagism. From a starting point that combines Homer's Odyssey and Dante's Divine Comedy to create a personal epic of 20th-century life, the poem uses materials from history, politics, literature, art, music, economics, philosophy, mythology, ecology and the poet's personal experiences and ranges across European, American, African and Asian cultures. Chinese grammar offers different expressive possibilities from English grammar, a point that Pound subsequently made much of. In common with many other modernists, these poets wrote in reaction to the perceived excesses of Victorian poetry, with its emphasis on traditional formalism and ornate diction. Modernist poetry in English is generally considered to have emerged in the early years of the 20th century with the appearance of the Imagist poets. Although nominally admirers of Eliot, these poets tended towards a poetry of radical content but formal conservativeness. Hugh MacDiarmid helped found the National Party of Scotland and was also a member of the Communist Party of Great Britain. To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation. [citation needed] That month Pound's book Ripostes was published with an appendix called The Complete Poetical Works of T. E. Hulme, which carried a note that saw the first appearance of the word Imagiste in print. Many people use the day to share their favourite poems from the canon, but here at the New Statesman, we thought we’d share our favourite great modern poems. She also experimented with stanza forms borrowed from troubadour poetry. Wallace Stevens' essential modernist poem, "Of Modern Poetry"(1942) sounds as if the verbs are left out. At one point in the article, Smith asks why all the “indisputably” great 20th century poets are either American or Irish. .article-mpu-5 { display: none; } In the UK, today is National Poetry Day! Composer, Musician, Playwright, Lyricist, Poet, Illustrator, Novelist, Performer, Writer, Playwright, Writer, Poet, Children's writer. (New York : Alfred A. Knopf, 1920) T. S. Eliot was born in America but went to England in 1915 where he lived for the remain-der of his life. In Scotland, the poet Hugh MacDiarmid formed something of a one-man modernist movement. See also: Poets by Nationality | Contemporary English Poets | English Women Poets | All English Poets English Poets … Eliot, James Baldwin, and Robert Frost. Poems. This page was last edited on 26 June 2020, at 10:30. By the beginning of the 20th century, poetry had come a long way. The emergence of English-language modernism. The Button-Down Life 2. 1. Other Imagist-associated poets also went on to write long poems. Find out more about the greatest authors of the 20th century, including Woolf, Orwell, Hughes, Carter and Kureishi. The narrator, however (in "The Waste Land" as in other texts), promises to show the reader a different meaning; that is, how to make meaning from dislocation and fragmentation. Robert Duncan, another Black Mountain poet admired H.D. But, what would the answer be if you were asked who the most important poets of the 21st century are? Classic and contemporary love poems to share. However, she also displayed anti-Semitic views in the notebooks for her book Tribute to Freud. Origin also published work by Louis Zukofsky, Lorine Niedecker and Wallace Stevens, helping to revive interest in these early modernist writers. A Pulitzer Prize winner and the country’s first black poet laureate, Dove … In his poems on the South African War, Hardy (whose achievement as a poet in the 20th century rivaled his achievement as a novelist in the 19th) questioned simply and sardonically the human cost of empire building and established a tone and style that many British poets were to use in the course of the century… let see who all cover this list ! As it developed, however, longer poems came to the foreground. If you are interested to enjoy a sort of modern poetry, have a look on works of these poets. At the same time, a classic love poem will always be something that is appreciated. It would come to be known as the Irish literary renaissance and would change modern Irish history, but first it had to make sense of the Irish past. Eliot, T. S. (Thomas Stearns), 1888-1965. While Gertrude Stein, Barney and Joyce remained in the French city, much of the scene they had presided over scattered. Other modernists took up political positions that did not fit neatly into the left/right model. I think it is fair to say that American poets have really dominated the poetry scene in the 20th century. The roots of English-language poetic modernism can be traced back to the works of a number of earlier writers, including Walt Whitman, whose long lines approached a type of free verse, the prose poetry of Oscar Wilde, Robert Browning's subversion of the poetic self, Emily Dickinson's compression and the writings of the early English Symbolists, especially Arthur Symons. Top 10 Best 21-Century Poets You Must Know. Alan Jacobs; Ted Hughes; Andrew Motion; Wilfred Owen; J.R.R.Tolkien; European 20th Century Poets. Contributors also included Pound, Eliot, H.D., Djuna Barnes, Amy Lowell, Conrad Aiken, Carl Sandburg and Wallace Stevens. Al Alvarez. With a few exceptions, this represents a roll-call of English-language modernist poets of the time. Silent Lotus. “Harpsichords Metallic Howl—“: The Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven’s Sound Poetry.”, Gammel, Irene and Suzanne Zelazo. Find out more about the greatest 21st Century British Poets, including Charles Salvador, Morrissey, Donovan, Johnny Marr and Bernie Taupin. Notwithstanding, modernist poetry cannot be positively characterised, there being no mainstream or dominant mode.[7]. Some of the most remarkable and groundbreaking poetry has come from US poets living in or away from home. In common with many other modernists, these poets were writing in reaction to what they saw as the excesses of Victorian poetry , with its emphasis on traditional formalism and overly flowery poetic diction. He earned his BA from St. John’s College, Oxford, where he befriended novelist and poet Kingsley Amis and finished with First Class Honors in English. Modern and Contemporary Poets of Christian Faith The following is a partial list of twentieth-century poets who write in some way about their Christian faith. Authors - 20th century poets, novelists and playwrights - The British Library Skip to main … They started meeting with other poets at the Eiffel Tower restaurant in Soho to discuss reform of contemporary poetry through free verse and the tanka and haiku and the removal of all unnecessary verbiage from poems. [1] In October 1912, he submitted three poems each by H.D. His poetry … reveals breaking away from established rules, traditions and conventions, fresh ways of looking at man’s position and function in the universe and many experiments in form and style. 23 December 1955 . 01 October 1987. Eliot’s productions were entirely in the modern style, even if his blueprints were seventeenth century metaphysical poets. In many respects, their criticism echoes what William Wordsworth wrote in Preface to Lyrical Ballads to instigate the Romantic movement in British poetryover a century earlier, criticising the gauche and pompous sch… [citation needed]. After the 1914 volume, Pound distanced himself from the group and the remaining anthologies appeared under the editorial control of Amy Lowell. Many people use the day to share their favourite poems from the canon, but here at the New Statesman, we thought we’d share our favourite great modern … But, as Barr mentioned, poems are 21st-century poets from Northern Ireland‎ (8 P) Pages in category "21st-century British poets" The following 87 pages are in this category, out of 87 total. This course considers some of the substantial early twentieth-century poetic voices in America. The greatest modern poets of 20th century changed the course of poetry and added innovative and realistic notion to it. Their work, however, was to have a revolutionary impact on English-language writing for the rest of the 20th century. Gammel, Irene and Suzanne Zelazo. For American writers, living in Europe became more difficult as their incomes lost a great deal of their relative value. [citation needed] In 1911, Pound introduced two other poets, H.D. Authors vary, but may include Moore, Frost, Eliot, Stevens, and Pound. Physicist Jim al-Khalili nominates Gertrude Bell who shaped modern-day Iraq. The U.S. modernist poets were concerned to create work in a distinctively American idiom. Introduction: After 1900 the English scene becomes terribly chaotic. Indeed, Coffey and Devlin were amongst the first to translate the works of Paul Éluard into English. The reader is thrown into confusion, unable to see anything but a heap of broken images. Modernists saw themselves as looking back to the best practices of poets in earlier periods and other cultures. The greatest modern poets of 20th century changed the course of poetry and added innovative and realistic notion to it. Postmodern British Poetry By Nasrullah Mambrol on November 12, 2017 • ( 0). Moreover in 2007, she won the prize of British Book Awards deciBel Writer of the Year. The Cambridge Companion to British Poetry, 1945-2010RR 2016/156 The Cambridge Companion to British Poetry, 1945-2010 Edited by Edward Larrissy Cambridge University Press Cambridge 2016 xii + 292 pp. Poet… 5,388 2 minutes read. Famous 21st Century British Poets. This book considers together seven poets — Henry Newbolt, John Masefield, Thomas Hardy, Edward Thomas, A. E. Housman, John Davidson, and Rupert Brooke — and argues that their work is worthy of more serious critical attention than it has previously received. Poet. A pillar of both the Irish and British literary establishments, … of twentieth-century poets who write in some way about their Christian faith. Yeats as models and these writers struck a chord with a readership who were uncomfortable with the experimentation and uncertainty preferred by the modernists. The origins of Imagism and cubist poetry are to be found in two poems by T. E. Hulme that were published in 1909 by the Poets' Club in London. This course will explore the work of some of the most infuential and innovative voices in 20th century British poetry. Scott, formed at that city's McGill University in the mid-1920s. He looked backwards for inspiration, but he was not nostalgic or romantic about the past. Economist, University teacher, Philosopher, Writer, Poet, Novelist, Science fiction writer, Writer, Screenwriter, Playwright, Poet, Theatre. The latter contained this succinct statement of the group's position: In setting these criteria for poetry, the Imagists saw themselves as looking backward to the best practices of pre-Romantic writing. A long poem that is often overlooked, because it first appeared in the commercially unsuccessful 1936 anthology New Provinces, is Canadian poet A. M. Klein's meditation on Spinoza, "Out of the Pulver and the Polished Lens.". John Berger. Below is a sampling of the work of 10 of the greatest American poems from the 20th century. [2], Henry Gore (1902–1956), whose work is undergoing something of a revival was also heavily influenced by the Imagist movement, although from a different generation from H.D., Flint etc. [citation needed]. William Carlos Williams' political views arose from his daily contact with the poor who attended his surgery. Books on LibraryThing tagged 20th century British poetry. Find out more about the greatest 20th Century British Poets, including Charles Salvador, Roald Dahl, Morrissey, Geoffrey Chaucer and Ted Hughes Famous 20th Century British Poets J. R. R. Tolkien 03 … H.D., Mina Loy and Nathalie Barney, for instance, are now seen as proto-feminists and their openness about their various sexualities can be read as foreshadowing the 1970s view that the personal is political. These poets, who included Tom Raworth, Bob Cobbing, Gael Turnbull, Tom Pickard and others formed the nucleus of the British Poetry Revival. An admirer of Joyce and Pound, MacDiarmid wrote much of his early poetry in anglicised Lowland Scots, a literary dialect which had also been used by Robert Burns. As the Beats and other American poets began to find readers in the UK and Ireland, a new generation of British poets with an interest in modernist experimentation began to appear. [citation needed] Hulme was a student of mathematics and philosophy who had established the Poets' Club to discuss his theories of poetry. Modernism and modern poetry 1. During the 1930s, he was expelled from the former for being a communist and from the latter for being a nationalist although he rejoined the Communist Party in 1956. When Mina Loy moved to New York in 1916, she became part of a circle of writers involved with Others: A Magazine of the New Verse which included William Carlos Williams and Marianne Moore, among others. [citation needed] However, these poets essentially remained true to the basic tenets of the Romantic movement and the appearance of the Imagists marked the first emergence of a distinctly modernist poetic in the language. We'll read the major poems by the most important poets in English in the 20th century, emphazinig especially the period between post-WWI disillusionment and early WW II internationalism (ca. His poetry is a complex exploration of the relationship between imagination and reality. Writer, Children's writer, YouTuber, Novelist, Singer-songwriter, Composer, Singer, Poet, Singer, Poet, Singer-songwriter, Stage actor, Film, Actor, Poet, Author, Screenwriter, Writer, Screenwriter, Poet, Autobiographer, Journalist, Painter, Playwright, Writer, Poet, University. One poet who served in the war, the visual artist David Jones, later resisted this trend in his long experimental war poem "In Parenthesis", which was written directly out of his trench experiences but was not published until 1937. The addition of notes to the published poem served to highlight the use of collage as a literary technique, paralleling similar practice by the cubists and other visual artists. Basil Bunting, who came from a Quaker background, was a conscientious objector during World War I, but because of his opposition to Fascism, served in British Military Intelligence in Persia (Iran) during World War II. The Objectivists Louis Zukofsky, George Oppen and Carl Rakosi were all, at one time or another, committed Marxists and Oppen spent a number of years in Mexico to escape the attention of Joseph McCarthy's United States Senate committee. This list includes great poets from the 20th century such as Maya Angelou, T.S. Read literature in its true spirit. Read and Enjoy Poetry by 20th Century Famous Poets. These represent the modernist movement to the 20th-century English poetic canon. ... for the Red Dust Road. The basic tenets of Objectivist poetics were to treat the poem as an object and to emphasise sincerity, intelligence, and the poet's ability to look clearly at the world, and in this they can be viewed as direct descendants of the Imagists. The early 20th century brought the Modernism movement when many writers broke from traditional forms. Carol Ann Duffy, ‘Text’. The poem of the mind has to be alternative and listening; it is experimental. Anna Akhmatova; Patrick Kavanagh (1904 – 1967) Wislawa Symborska; Czeslaw Milosz; Ranier Maria Rilke; Yannis Ritsos (1909 – 1990) Other Poets. For example, they rarely wrote free verse, preferring rhyme and regular stanza patterns in much of their work. After her initial association with the Imagists, Marianne Moore carved out a unique niche for herself among 20th-century poets. This new generation helped bring about a renewed interest in the writings of Bunting, MacDiarmid, David Jones and David Gascoyne. 10 of the Best 17th and 18th Century British Poets 10 of the Best 19th Century American Poets. Much of her poetry is written in syllabic verse, repeating the number of syllables rather than stresses or beats, per line. Imagistic poets used sharp language and embraced imagery. This site uses cookies to deliver our services, improve performance, for analytics, and (if not signed in) for advertising. Octavio Paz. ISBN 978 1 107 09066 8 (hbck); ISBN 978 1 107 46284 7 (pbck)£54.99 $89.99 (hbck); £17.99 $27.99 (pbck) Cambridge Companions to Literature Available electronically through Cambridge … The verb 'to be' is omitted from the first and final lines. The poetry of the 20th century is marked with a note of realism. Certainly by the 1930s, a new generation of poets had emerged who looked to more formally conservative poets like Thomas Hardy and W.B. His later work reflected an increasing interest in found poetry and other formal innovations. moved between that city and Switzerland, and many of the other writers associated with the movement were now living in the States. … 20th Century: one of many verses from an anthology of much-loved poems from the English-speaking world that includes important work from major poets, memorable lines, sources for study guides and poetry for every occasion and mood - verse that can inspire you … Though poets are often influenced by each other and sometimes, share a common outlook, their style and the ways of writing differ from each other. Ladies and gentlemen, here it is: the 10 Must-Read Twentieth Century Poems! … Lowell, Amy. Thich Nhat Hanh. The March issue contained Pound's A Few Don'ts by an Imagiste and Flint's Imagisme. Poetry has come to a point where it needs to evolve into something new and exciting. A number of Irish poets and writers moved to Paris in the early 1930s to join the circle around James Joyce. He tears the veil w… All these poems, to one extent or another, use a range of techniques to blend personal experience with materials from a wide range of cultural and intellectual activities to create collage-like texts on an epic scale. Whether it’s for an anniversary, Valentine’s Day, or just because, here’s a selection of love poems for your special someone. British War Poetry in the 20th Century 3301-LB119 This course is designed as a full review of British attitudes to war and peace in the 20th century, particularly those of the soldier poets, who fought in the Great War, the Spanish Civil War, the Falklands War, and the military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. David Jones' war poem In Parenthesis was a book-length work that drew on the matter of Britain to illuminate his experiences in the trenches, and his later epic The Anathemata, itself hewn from a much longer manuscript, is a meditation on empire and resistance, the local and the global, which uses materials from Christian, Roman and Celtic history and mythology. Sound poetry emerged in this period as a response to the war. The authors listed on this page include some of the greatest poets of 20th Century. Thousands of poems are written, and thousands published, every day. Eliot was an American poet who had been living in London for some time. Find out more about the greatest 20th Century British Poets, including Charles Salvador, Roald Dahl, Morrissey, Geoffrey Chaucer and Ted Hughes, Guitarist, Poet, Singer, Songwriter, Record. It’s an excellent article – well researched, controversial, and passionate. In descending order, we have… 10. Check out the list below! 20th-century British women writers. A list of Famous 20th Century English Poets. They range in style, background, and the social, personal and cultural contexts from which they drew inspiration. Modernist poetry in English started in the early years of the 20th century with the appearance of the Imagists. These included Samuel Beckett, Thomas MacGreevy, Brian Coffey and Denis Devlin. Lowell expressed her extreme debt to the French, to what she preferred to call 'unrhymed cadence' instead of the more common 'verse libre'. 's in January 1913 and Imagism as a movement was launched. For example, in Chinese, the first line of Li Po's (called "Rihaku" by Fenollosa's Japanese informants) poem The River Merchant's Wife: A Letter is a spare, direct juxtaposition of 5 characters that appear in Fenollosa's notes as, mistress       hair       first       cover       brow, In his resulting 1915 Cathay, Pound rendered this in simple English as, While my hair was still cut straight across my forehead. Charles Olson, the theorist of the Black Mountain group, wrote in his 1950 essay, Projectivist Verse 'ONE PERCEPTION MUST IMMEDIATELY AND DIRECTLY LEAD TO A FURTHER PERCEPTION', a statement that links back directly to the Imagists. The poets writing in the first years of the 20th century have commonly been discussed in isolation. In common with many other modernists, these poets wrote in reaction to the perceived excesses of Victorian poetry, with its emphasis on traditional formalism and ornate diction. Direct treatment of the "thing", whether subjective or objective. Much of early modernist poetry took the form of short, compact lyrics. Broken, fragmented and seemingly unrelated slices of imagery come together to form a disjunctive anti-narrative. 23 December 1955 . Although London and Paris were key centres of activity for English-language modernists, much important activity took place elsewhere, including early publication in Poetry magazine in America. Trends in Modern 20th Century Poetry. The early 20th century saw a lot of push against formal structure and style. Various movements and changes had a greater influence upon modern poetry. John Berger. The key group to emerge during this time were the Objectivist poets, consisting of Louis Zukofsky, George Oppen, Charles Reznikoff, Carl Rakosi, Basil Bunting and Lorine Niedecker. The economic depression, combined with the impact of the Spanish Civil War, also saw the emergence, in the Britain of the 1930s, of a more overtly political poetry, as represented by such writers as W. H. Auden and Stephen Spender. Unnecessary Wind 5. Read literature in its true spirit. H.D. Their models included ancient Greek literature, Chinese and Japanese poetry, the troubadours, Dante and the medieval Italian philosophical poets (such as Guido Cavalcanti), and the English Metaphysical poets. Smith, and F.R. [5] Working from a confrontational feminist and artistic agenda, the Baroness asserted a distinctly female subjectivity in the post-World War I era. MacDiarmid wrote a number of long poems, including On a Raised Beach, Three Hymns to Lenin and In Memoriam James Joyce, in which he incorporated materials from science, linguistics, history and even found poems based on texts from the Times Literary Supplement. Unlike many other modernists, but like the English Romantics, by whom he was influenced, Stevens thought that poetry was what all humans did; the poet was merely self-conscious about the activity. Common speech language was used, and the exact word was always to be used, as opposed to the almost exact word. Novelist. Advertisement. When Eliot had completed his original draft of a long poem based on both the disintegration of his personal life and mental stability, and the culture around him, he gave the manuscript, provisionally titled "He Do the Police in Different Voices", to Pound for comment. The American poet Ezra Pound was introduced to this group and they found that their ideas resembled his. [citation needed] From the ensuing debate, Hulme and Flint became close friends. He served in the Royal Army Medical Corps during World War I and was invalided out in 1918. Find out more about the greatest authors of the 20th century, including Woolf, Orwell, Hughes, Carter and Kureishi. Thanks to his influence, Zukofsky was asked to edit a special Objectivist issue of the Chicago-based journal Poetry in 1931 to launch the group. Carol Ann Duffy. However, the economic collapse of the late 1920s and early 1930s had a serious negative impact on the new writing. This was reflected in a number of major poems written in its aftermath. Poets fighting in France recorded a similar sense of loss. The poem itself opens and closes with the act of finding. Rita Dove. Indeed, he deprecated the work of both Eliot and Pound as "mannered." Buy products related to 20th century british poetry products and see what customers say about 20th century british poetry products on FREE DELIVERY possible on eligible purchases 20th Century British Literature Timeline created by ... is also dentified as the "father" of modern fantasy literatureTolkien's writings have inspired many other works of fantasy and have had a lasting ... Mar 1, 1954 to Mar 1, 1974. One anomalous figure of the early period of modernism also deserves mention: Gerard Manley Hopkins wrote in a radically experimental prosody about radically conservative ideals (not unlike a later Ezra Pound), and he believed that sound could drive poetry. During the poem the dyad becomes further collapsed into one: a spatial and a temporal collapse between the subject and the object; form and content equal each other; form becomes not simply expressive of, but constitutive of. The Objectivists were admirers of Stein, Pound and Williams and Pound actively promoted their work. The title of poet laureate was first granted in England in the 17th century for poetic excellence. In addition to Pound, Flint, H.D. Novelist. to say about the frustrating and beautiful complexities of the human experience. After some heavy editing, "The Waste Land" in the form in which we now know it was published, and Eliot came to be seen as the voice of a generation.
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